Memantine is an NMDA receptor antagonist medication that is sold as memantine HCl. It is used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and works by blocking NMDA receptors in the brain. Unlike selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are a type of antidepressant medication that increase serotonin levels in the brain, memantine hydrochloride is not antidepressant but rather used to improve cognitive function in research subjects with Alzheimer’s disease.
How does Memantine Work?
Its primary mechanism of action is believed to be the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels, which are a subfamily of glutamate receptors involved in brain function. Memantine differs from other drugs that block NMDA receptor channels, as it specifically affects the gating of blocked channels and binds to two sites on NMDA receptors. Modulation of NMDA receptor activity can either increase or decrease neuronal circuit excitability, and subtle differences in the mechanism of action of NMDA receptor antagonists can have significant effects on their efficacy. [R]
Multiple animal and cell-based studies have been conducted on Memantine. This research chemical has also been the subject of clinical research. All these pieces of research have shown that Memantine can potentially work in dementia, Alzheimer’s disease with comorbid renal impairment, eating disorders, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Behemoth Labz sells Memantine for laboratory and research purposes, not for human use.
Memantine and Dementia
The study investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of memantine for research subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, vascular or mixed dementia. Memantine is a low-affinity antagonist to N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type receptors that may prevent excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity without interfering with the physiological actions of glutamate required for memory and learning. The analysis of the change from baseline at 28 weeks showed a statistically significant improvement in cognition, activities of daily living, and global clinical impression of change for research subjects with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease receiving memantine 20 mg/day. There was also less cognitive deterioration for research subjects with mild to moderate vascular dementia receiving memantine 20 mg/day at 28 weeks. At 6 weeks, there were beneficial effects on cognition, function, and global scales for memantine in mixed populations. The compound was well tolerated with a low incidence of adverse effects. More studies are needed to further evaluate memantine’s efficacy and safety. [R]
Memantine and Alzheimer’s disease with comorbid renal impairment
Renal impairment affects the disposition of memantine by altering glomerular blood flow and filtration, as well as tubular secretion and reabsorption, and hepatic metabolism. Memantine is primarily excreted in urine as the parent drug, and its pharmacokinetics may be affected by renal impairment. In a study evaluating the effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of memantine, a single 20 mg oral dose of memantine was administered to subjects with normal renal function and subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment. There were no relevant differences in maximum memantine plasma concentration between subjects with the normal and impaired renal function of any severity.
However, the mean area under the plasma concentration versus time curve extrapolated to infinity increased by 60% and 115% in subjects with moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. Simulations predicted steady-state maximum concentration values and a target dose of 5 mg twice daily is recommended in subjects with severe renal impairment, while no dosage adjustments are needed for subjects with mild or moderate renal impairment. [R]
Memantine and Eating Disorders
Excessive consumption of highly palatable food has been linked to eating disorders and obesity. In a study with rats, Memantine is an NMDA receptor antagonist that has been shown to decrease excessive consumption of highly palatable foods in non-food-deprived rats. In the study mentioned, rats were given limited (2-hour daily) access to an optional dietary fat and treated with subchronic doses of either memantine, sibutramine (a reference appetite-suppressing agent), or a mGluR5 antagonist. The consumption of both standard laboratory chow and lard were measured during 12 days of medication treatment and for 6 days afterward.
The study found that memantine significantly decreased lard consumption and increased chow consumption, comparable to the effects of sibutramine. However, memantine’s effects persisted after treatment discontinuation. These results suggest that memantine might be a more long-lasting treatment option for excessive consumption of highly palatable foods. [R]
Memantine and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
The study investigates the effects of memantine in rats with fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). The rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, TBI + vehicle, and TBI + memantine. The TBI rats were treated with memantine intraperitoneal injection, with a dose of 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally immediately after TBI and then 1 mg/kg every 12 hours intraperitoneally for 6 doses
The results of the study showed that memantine therapy significantly attenuated motor and proprioception deficits and reduced infarction volume in TBI rats compared to the TBI + vehicle group. decreased after memantine therapy, but NR2A expression was not affected.
The study suggests that memantine may ameliorate TBI in rats by affecting NR2B expression, reducing neuronal apoptosis, and decreasing nitrosative stress in the injured cortex. The reduction of astrogliosis and microgliosis by memantine therapy also suggests a potential role of NMDA receptor antagonists in modulating the immune response after TBI. Further research is necessary to investigate the potential of memantine in treating TBI in humans. [R]
Memantine and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Study of OCD in mice investigates the effect of memantine on marble-burying behavior. Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, was found to significantly inhibit marble-burying behavior without affecting locomotor activity. Furthermore, the study found that memantine at 10 mg disrupted prepulse inhibition, which is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. This suggests that these drugs may have effects on cognitive processes related to information processing and attention, which may be important to consider when evaluating their potential use in OCD.
Further study is needed to understand the efficacy of Memantine in animal models with psychiatric disorders. [R]
Memantine Side Effects
Memantine HCl is typically formulated with other inactive ingredients, such as lactose monohydrate, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate, to create an oral tablet. Memantine may have positive effects on cognitive function in Alzheimer’s patients, but it may also cause potential side effects, such as anxiety, dizziness, headache, and in rare cases, seizures or hallucinations. [R] [R]
There is also the possibility of reverse tolerance, meaning that over time, research subjects may need higher doses to achieve the same effect.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
What is the half-life of Memantine?
Memantine has a wide dosage range with proportionate pharmacokinetics, and its apparent elimination half-life is 60 to 70 hours. [R] Half-life of memantine can be longer in people with impaired kidney function.
Is Memantine legal?
In the United States, memantine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease.
Where to Buy Memantine for Sale?
Behemoth Labz is the best place to buy Memantine online.
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Memantine is a medication that blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels in the brain and is used in Alzheimer’s disease to improve cognitive function. Memantine has been the subject of animal and clinical research, which has shown potential benefits in dementia, Alzheimer’s disease with comorbid renal impairment, eating disorders, traumatic brain injury, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, more studies are needed to further evaluate its efficacy and safety. Behemoth Labz sells Memantine for laboratory and research purposes only, not for human use.
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